Journal of Medical Hypotheses and Ideas 2008. 2( ):1-2.

Co-infection with syphilis and malaria: immune deterioration on CD4+
Viroj Wiwanitkit


Syphilis is a well-known sexually transmitted disease found around the world. Malaria and syphilis are endemic in many regions of the world, and co-infection with the two pathogens is common. Here, the author used a new pathway ontology technology to predict the pathway of CD4+ suppression in an episode of co-infection. Of interest, the author found that there are some immune suppression process that can be found both in syphilis and malaria. The mentioned processes are inhibiting interleukin-2 secreted by CD4+ and nitric oxide production. In the co-infection, the synergy to increase the immune suppression can be expected.


Syphilis, CD4+ suppression,

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